In 2008, economic and political developments continued to suffer a hangover from the violence which followed the late
2007 general election. Mediation led by Kofi Annan brought the two main political parties into a power-sharing government. The National
Accord signed in February 2008 led to the formation of a Grand Coalition Government, headed by President Mwai Kibaki of the Party of
National Unity (PNU) with Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) as the Prime Minister, and Kalonzo Musyoka (ODM-K) as
the Vice President. Two positions of deputy prime ministers, one each from the two big parties, were also created. During 2008, the
National Accord bill was incorporated into the constitution.
A Commission of Inquiry into Post Election Violence, headed by Appeal Court Judge Philip Waki, recommended that the parties agree to
the establishment of a Special Election Violence Tribunal. The President and the Prime Minister signed an agreement in December 2008
that paved the way to implement the Commission's recommendations, but the Bill was rejected by the Parliament in February 2009 and
the authorities will need to address the issue again. If the agreement to establish the tribunal is not signed, or if for some reason
it fails to work, the list of suspects believed to be responsible for the violence would be forwarded to the International Criminal Court
The outcome of 2007 General Elections led to violent destruction of property and loss of life throughout the country. An estimated
1 300 people were killed and more than 350 000 people displaced. This called for resettlement programmes immediately after the National
Accord was signed, and the country began to witness a return to normality. Resettlement activities continued throughout 2008 and by
the end of December 2008, only a small fraction of internally displaced persons were still in camps.