PA transitional government was established following the signature of the Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation
in Burundi on 28 August 2000. A series of institutional reforms were also introduced. Above all, these included elections, reforming
public administration, tackling corruption, reforming the legal sector, the defence and the security corps. After the 2005 elections,
these reforms made up the legislature's political manifesto. On the eve of municipal, legislative and presidential elections scheduled
for 2010, these reforms are far from complete.
The aim of these prospective institutional reforms was to get Burundi out of a cycle of violence and to rebuild the country.
It was understood that this could only be achieved if the process was legitimised by democratic elections. The last municipal and
legislative elections took place in 2005 and ended in victory for the National Coalition for the Defence of Democracy-Democratic
Defence Forces party. The elections were deemed to be transparent by all parties involved and by independent observers.
There was a climate of relative peace throughout the whole country apart from some parts of the west, where attacks were still
being carried out by an armed movement known as the Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People-National Liberation Front.
A decentralisation policy has been put in place, in line with the stipulations of the Arusha Agreement and the post-transition
constitution. In the absence of an overall legal framework, this is articulated by municipal law and in a policy paper. Municipalities
are legally and financially independent. However, the way they are divided up has more to do with keeping political paymasters happy and
less to do with using resources rationally. The decentralisation policy has thus fallen victim to procrastination and to strategic
political calculations about territorial occupation, blocking decentralisation laws and the support fund. As long as there is no real
decentralisation and no significant source of material and financial resources (a support fund for decentralisation is being looked
into), most of the country's municipalities will continue to face challenges and will not even be able to pay their staff.
Another major reform within the administrative sector looks at how to manage central government. As a result, a general government
inspectorate, a national audit office, and an anti-corruption court and task force have been created to fight corruption, economic
and financial malpractice. An anti-corruption law has also been passed.
However, there were election on 26 July 2010 with only one candidate. That was President Pierre Nkurunziza who won election with more
than 91 percent. It seems the reform it didn't work well because during the election at least eight people have been killed and
more than 50 people wounded in almost 60 explosions since June, raising fears of a return to violence seen during the country's
recent civil war